Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is located in the Upper Part of Nizhny Novgorod, in the very centre of its historical area. It is a magnificent medieval fortress on the high bank of the Volga river, dominating the neighboring hills, meadows and lakes. There is no any similar construction in Russia that would have the s ame level difference between its two parts (the Kremlin is located on a steep slope of a hill) and so it was an outstanding engineering fortification for its time. The Kremlin was built of stone nearly 500 years ago and replaced the old wooden fortress which was burnt down by neighboring pagan tribes.
The Kremlin system includes 13 towers - 5 square towers with gates and 8 round ones. Each tower has its name. Some towers acquired theirs names from the churches situated not far from them, some follow old legends. Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin towers are 18-30 meters high. They are connected with huge walls (up to 5 meters in width with loopholes and merlons). The walls height is 12-22 meters. As the Kremlin was erected in accordance with a high level of military and defence technology of the past, despite a large number of attempts, it was never captured by an enemy force.
Today inside the Kremlin walls there is the Art Gallery, Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsky Cathedral (the oldest building in Nizhny Novgorod), the Eternal Flame, and other memorials and cultural sights. Numerous souvenir shops are located right inside the ancient walls. The Kremlin also hosts the city and the region executive and legislative authorities. In the summer, by climbing up the brick-built Kladovaya Tower, you can go for a fascinating stroll and admire the expanses of the Volga and the Oka rivers and view of the Strelka (the confluence of the rivers).